GOVERNMENT ACTS AND REGULATIONS
- WOMEN’S RIGHTS IN CONSTITUTION OF INDIA PART-III FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS
- (1) The State shall not discriminate against any citizen on grounds only of religion, race, caste, sex, place of birth or any of them.
(2) No citizen shall, on grounds only of religion, race, caste, sex, place of birth or any of them, be subject to any disability, liability, restriction or condition with regard to—
(a) access to shops, public restaurants, hotels and places of public entertainment; or
(b) the use of wells, tanks, bathing ghats, roads and places of public resort maintained wholly or partly out of State funds or dedicated to the use of the general public.
(3) Nothing in this article shall prevent the State from making any special provision for women and children.
DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY
- The State shall, in particular, direct its policy towards securing—
(a) that the citizens, men and women equally, have the right to an adequate means of livelihood;
(b) that the ownership and control of the material resources of the community are so distributed as best to subserve the common good;
(c) that the operation of the economic system does not result in the concentration of wealth and means of production to the common detriment;
(d) that there is equal pay for equal work for both men and women;
(e) that the health and strength of workers, men and women, and the tender age of children are not abused and that citizens are not forced by economic necessity to enter avocations unsuited to their age or strength;
It shall be the duty of every citizen of India—
(a) to abide by the Constitution and respect its ideals and institutions, the National Flag and the National Anthem;
(b) to cherish and follow the noble ideals which inspired our national struggle for freedom;
(c) to uphold and protect the sovereignty, unity and integrity of India;
(d) to defend the country and render national service when called upon to do so;
(e) to promote harmony and the spirit of common brotherhood amongst all the people of India transcending religious, linguistic and regional or sectional diversities; to renounce practices derogatory to the dignity of women;
(f) To value and preserve the rich heritage of our composite culture;
(g) To protect and improve the natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers and wild life, and to have compassion for living creatures;
(h) To develop the scientific temper, humanism and the spirit of inquiry and reform;
NATIONAL POLICY ON EDUCATION (WITH MODIFICATIONS UNDERTAKEN IN 1992)
1.13 The growth of our population needs to be brought down significantly over the coming decades. The largest single factor that could help achieve this is the spread of literacy and education among women.
EDUCATION FOR WOMEN’S EQUALITY
4.2 Education will be used as an agent of basic change in the status of woman. In order to neutralise the accumulated distortions of the past, there will be a well-conceived edge in favour of women. The National Education System will play a positive, interventionist role in the empowerment of women. It will foster the development of new values through redesigned curricula, textbooks, the training and orientation of teachers, decision-makers and administrators, and the active involvement of educational institutions. This will be an act of faith and social engineering. Women’s studies will be promoted as a part of various courses and educational institutions encouraged taking up active programmes to further women’s development.
4.3 The removal of women’s illiteracy and obstacles inhibiting their access to, and retention in, elementary education will receive overriding priority, through provision of special support services, setting of time targets, and effective monitoring. Major emphasis will be laid on women’s participation in vocational, technical and professional education at different levels. The policy of non-discrimination will be pursued vigorously to eliminate sex stereo-typing in vocational and professional courses and to promote women’s participation in non-traditional occupations, as well as in existing and emergent technologies.
4.12 [Since involvement of the participants of the literacy campaigns in the development programmes is of crucial importance, the
National Literacy Mission will be geared to the national goals such as alleviation of poverty, national integration, environmental conservation, observance of the small family norm, promotion of women’s equality, universalization of primary education, basic health-care, etc. It will also facilitate energisation of the cultural creativity of the people and their active participation in development processes]
EARLY CHILDHOOD CARE & EDUCATION
5.2 Recognising the holistic nature of child development, viz., nutrition, health and social, mental, physical, moral and emotional development, Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE) will receive high priority and be suitably integrated with the Integrated Child Development Services programme, wherever possible. Day-care centres will be provided as a support service for universalization of primary education, to enable girls engaged in taking care of siblings to attend school and as a support service for working women belonging to poorer sections.
5.7 [Provision will be made of essential facilities in primary schools. The scope of Operation Blackboard will be enlarged to provide three reasonably large rooms that are usable in all weather, and black boards, maps, charts, toys, other necessary learning aids and school library. At least three teachers should work in every school, the number increasing, as early as possible, to one teacher per class. At least 50 per cent of teachers recruited in/future should be women. The Operation Blackboard will be extended to upper primary stage also. Construction of school buildings will be a priority charge on JRY funds]*
5.8 [The Non-formal Education Programme, meant for school dropouts, for children from habitations without schools, working children and girls who cannot attend whole-day schools, will be strengthened and enlarged]
5.9 [Modern technological aids will be used to improve the learning environment of NFE Centres. Talented and dedicated young men and women from the local community will be chosen to serve as instructors, and particular attention paid to their training. All necessary measures will be taken to ensure that the quality of non-formal education is comparable with the formal education. Steps will be taken to facilitate lateral entry into the formal system of children passing out of the non-formal system].
5.19 The establishment of vocational courses or institutions will be the responsibility of the Government as well as employers in the public and private sectors; the Government will, however, take special steps to cater to the needs of women, rural and tribal students and the deprived sections of society. Appropriate programmes will also be started for the handicapped.
5.21 Non-formal, flexible and need-based vocational programmes will also be made available to neo-literates, youth who have completed primary education, school drop-outs, persons engaged in work and unemployed or partially employed persons. Special attention in this regard will be given to women.
6.8 Appropriate formal and non-formal programmes of technical education will be devised for the benefit of women, the economically and socially weaker sections, and the physically handicapped.
THE MANAGEMENT OF EDUCATION
10.1 An overhaul of the system of planning and the management of education will receive high priority. The guiding considerations will be:
- a) Evolving a long-term planning and management perspective of education and its integration with the country’s developmental and manpower needs;
- b) Decentralisation and the creation of a spirit of autonomy for educational institutions;
- c) Giving pre-eminence to people’s involvement, including association of non-governmental agencies and voluntary effort;
- d) Inducting more women in the planning and management of education;
- e) Establishing the principle of accountability in relation to given objectives and norms.
NATIONAL POLICY ON EDUCATION-2016
3.2.9 Schools must help inculcate key qualities and attitudes like regularity and punctuality, cleanliness, self-control, industriousness and a spirit of entrepreneurship, sense of duty, desire to serve, responsibility, creativity, sensitivity to greater equality, respect towards women, care for the elderly, a democratic temper and an obligation to preserve the environment.
3.4.13 The NPE 86/92 laid special emphasis on the removal of disparities and the equalization of educational opportunity to specific disadvantaged target groups, including removal of women’s illiteracy, education of Scheduled Castes and Tribes, Minorities, the disabled and handicapped, neo-literates and through non-formal and adult education programmes.
4.13 Despite the disparity in women’s participation in higher education having been enunciated from the 1968 policy, the situation is far from satisfactory although several laudable efforts have been made leading to higher enrolment of women, including in professional courses
6.10.13 Ministry of Women and Child Development has formulated the National Early Childhood care and Education (ECCE) policy as approved by the Cabinet and notified by the Government of India in the Gazette on 12.10.2013. The vision of National ECCE policy is to achieve holistic development and active learning capacity of all children below 6 years of age by promoting free, universal, inclusive, equitable, joyful and contextualised opportunities for laying foundation and attaining full potential. The WCD Ministry’s National ECCE policy includes universal access with equity and inclusion. For a variety of reasons, particularly presumably due to non-allocation of resources, this policy has not been rolled out countrywide in an effective manner.
6.22.17 Mobilize youth and women: The new mass mobilization and steering of the mass programme will depend heavily on adolescents, youth and women. They are the most important and promising vanguard of the literacy movement. There can be many ways of energizing them, motivating SHGs to include literacy in their activities; building collectives of women at village, panchayat and block levels; creating object-oriented organizations of women etc.
9.3.3 Schools must develop in students, qualities like regularity and punctuality, cleanliness, good conduct, consideration for the elderly and respect for women. The process of education should inculcate a spirit of hard work and entrepreneurship, a respect for human rights and compassion for the disadvantaged sections of society. Every student should be made aware not only of his/her fundamental rights, but also of fundamental duties, laid down by the Constitution. The National Policy on Education should enable students to become responsible citizens of India in a globalized world
RECOMMENDATIONS OF NATIONAL POLICY ON EDUCATION, 2016
9.20.2 A sense of urgency is needed to address this challenge. Achieving this can be accelerated by
(i) Reaffirming government’s commitment to basic literacy and providing an opportunity for continuing education and lifelong learning for all illiterate persons above the age of 15 years.
(ii) Providing a seamless transition from basic literacy to continuing education so that the gains that have been made are not lost.
(iii) Involving youth and women’s organisations and in particular the Self Help Groups to participate in the programs
9.20.3 Well-defined geographical area should be taken up on priority by NGOs, Government, Schools/Colleges/educational institutions, etc. in districts with low literacy attainments, particularly among women.
Based on All these Acts, All India Mahila Sangh works for Women’s Empowerment, development of livelihood of Indian women and bring in equality to Women by providing quality education.